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Periodicals Department stores one of the most important and extensive stocks of periodicals in Latvia – from the 18th century up to the present, from paper versions to digital versions of newspapers and magazines. It amounts approximately 715 thousand units, of which more than 31 thousand units are year sets of newspapers. The collection includes more than 16 thousand titles in 28 languages, including in Latvian from 1851, in Russian from 1801, in German from 1701. Editions of previous years in the library are kept in Rare Books and Manuscripts Department.

The most important part of the collection are periodicals in Latvian language, issued in both Latvia and countries where Latvians are living elsewhere in the world, as well as newspapers and magazines printed in Latvia in other languages. Important period of Latvian press history is 20ies - 40ies of 20th century, when in Latvia in Latvian language there were issued editions with 1408 titles, but in the rest of the world in both the west and the east – 500 titles.

Majority editions of Latvian periodicals collection are unique, because they are the first ones in some branch, specialty, place of issue, including also the older ones – "Latviešu Avīzes", "Vidzemes Latviešu Avīzes", "Mājas Viesis", "Pēterburgas Avīzes" and others.

Collection annually is updated with new editions (about 600 titles). The collection in the Reading Room is supplemented by subscribed online full-text data bases available in the Reading Room, as well as by newspaper collections of Digital library.